Ge 1. Earth and Environment. 9 units (3-3-3); third term. An introduction to the ideas and approaches of earth and environmental sciences, including both the special challenges and viewpoints of these kinds of science as well as the ways in which basic physics, chemistry, and biology relate to them. In addition to a wide-ranging lecture-oriented component, there will be a required field trip component (two weekend days). The lectures and topics cover such issues as solid earth structure and evolution, plate tectonics, oceans and atmospheres, climate change, and the relationship between geological and biological evolution.

Ge 116. Analytical Techniques Laboratory. 9 units (1-4-4); second term. Methods of quantitative laboratory analysis of rocks, minerals, and fluids in geological and planetary sciences. Consists of five intensive two-week modules covering scanning electron microscopy (imaging, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron backscatter diffraction); the electron microprobe (wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy); optical, infrared, and Raman spectroscopy; gas source mass spectrometry for stable isotope analysis; and plasma source mass spectrometry for elemental and radiogenic isotope analysis. Satisfies the Institute core requirement for an additional introductory laboratory course.

Ge 212. Thermodynamics of Geological Systems. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. Prerequisites: Either Ch 21 abc, Ge 115 a, or equivalents. Chemical thermodynamics as applied to geological and geochemical problems. Classical thermodynamics, including stability criteria, homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria, equilibria subject to generalized constraints, equations of state, ideal and nonideal solutions, redox systems, and electrolyte conventions. Brief discussion of statistical foundations and an introduction to the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Instructor: Asimow. Given in alternate years; offered 2017-18.

Ge 215. Topics in Advanced Petrology. 12 units (4-0-8); first term. Prerequisite: Ge 115 ab or instructor's permission. Lectures, readings, seminars, and/or laboratory studies in igneous or metamorphic petrology, paragenesis, and petrogenesis. The course may cover experimental, computational, or analytical methods. Format and content are flexible according to the needs of the students. Instructor: Asimow. Given in alternate years; not offered 2017-18.