Ge/Ay 11 c. Introduction to Earth and Planetary Sciences: Planetary Sciences.  9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisites: Ma 1 ab, Ph 1 ab. A broad introduction to what is known about the origin, evolution, and present state of the solar system. Observations of young solar-mass stars, disks, and extrasolar planets, as well as meteorite properties and planet-formation models, are the constraints on solar-system origin. Based on data from Earth-based observations, planetary spacecraft, and extraterrestrial materials, the evolution and present states of planetary objects are addressed systematically by considering small bodies (comets and asteroids), the terrestrial planets, the giant planets, and finally, the icy bodies of the outer solar system.

Ge 103. Introduction to the Solar System.
9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisite: instructor's permission. Formation and evolution of the solar system. Interiors, surfaces, atmospheres of the sun, planets, and satellites. Orbital dynamics, chaos, and tidal friction. Cratering. Comets and asteroids. Magnetic fields, dynamos, solar wind, heliosphere, magnetospheres. Extrasolar planetary systems.

ESE/Ge 148 b. Global Environmental Science: Atmosphere-Ocean Circulations. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Largescale motions in Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Effects of planetary rotation and density stratification. Observing systems and data assimilation. Numerical weather prediction. Climate modeling. Parameterizations. Dynamical aspects of El Niño, global warming, and the ozone hole.

ESE/Ge 153. Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics. 9 units (3-0-6). Prerequisite: ESE 148 b or an introductory fluid dynamics course. Fluid dynamics of the atmosphere and oceans, beginning with linear wave dynamics and wave–mean flow interaction theory and leading to theories of the maintenance of large-scale circulations. Topics include barotropic Rossby waves, flow-over topography; shallow-water dynamics and potential vorticity; quasi-geostrophic theory; barotropic and baroclinic instability; wave–mean flow interaction; maintenance of the global-scale circulation of the atmosphere; structure of wind-driven ocean circulation.