11 d. Introduction to Earth and Planetary Sciences: Geophysics. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisites: Ch 1, Ma 2 a, Ph 2 a. An introduction to the geophysics of the solid earth; formation of planets; structure and composition of Earth; interactions between crust, mantle, and core; surface and internal dynamics; mantle convection; imaging of the interior; seismic tomography. Although Ge 11 abcd is designed as a sequence, any one term can be taken as a standalone course. Instructors: Clayton, Gurnis.

Ge 102. Introduction to Geophysics. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisites: Ma 2, Ph 2, or Ge 108, or equivalents. An introduction to the physics of the earth. The present internal structure and dynamics of the earth are considered in light of constraints from the gravitational and magnetic fields, seismology, and mineral physics. The fundamentals of wave propagation in earth materials are developed and applied to inferring Earth structure. The earthquake source is described in terms of seismic and geodetic signals. The following are also considered: the contributions that heat-flow, gravity, paleomagnetic, and earthquake mechanism data have made to our understanding of plate tectonics, the driving mechanism of plate tectonics, and the energy sources of mantle convection and the geodynamo. Instructors: Clayton, Gurnis.

Ge 163. Geodynamics.
9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisite: Ae/Ge/ME 160 ab. Quantitative introduction to the dynamics of the earth, including core, mantle, lithosphere, and crust. Mechanical models are developed for each of these regions and compared to a variety of data sets. Potential theory applied to the gravitational and geomagnetic fields. Special attention is given to the dynamics of plate tectonics and the earthquake cycle. Instructors: Gurnis.

263. Computational Geophysics.
9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisites: introductory class in geophysics, class in partial differential equations, some programming experience. Finite-difference, pseudo- spectral, finite-element, and spectral-element methods will be pre- sented and applied to a number of geophysical problems including heat flow, deformation, and wave propagation. Students will program simple versions of methods. Instructors: Clayton, Gurnis, Ampuero. Given in alternate years; offered 2012–13

268. Mantle Dynamics.
9 units (3-0-6); first term. Prerequisites: Ge 163 and Ge 263. Analysis of mantle dynamics and connection with surface processes, especially plate tectonics. Selected problems will be examined, including the mechanics of subduction, mantle plumes, mantle convection, convective mixing, thermal evolution, and interpretation of seismic tomography. Term project using numerical models required. Given in alternate years